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Welcome to Bjarne Stroustrup's homepage!
Our goal is to provide programmers with a complete online reference for the C and C++ languages and standard libraries, i.e. a more convenient version of the C and C++ standards. The primary objective is to have a good specification of C and C++. That is, things that are implicitly clear to an experienced programmer should be omitted, or at least separated from the main description of a function, constant or class. A good place to demonstrate various use cases is the "example" section of each page. Rationale, implementation notes, domain specific documentation are preferred to be included in the "notes" section of each page.
Microsoft Unit Testing Framework for C++ API Reference
Use these APIs to write C++ unit tests based on the Microsoft Native Unit Test Framework.
Google Testing and Mocking Framework
A modern, C++-native, header-only, test framework for unit-tests, TDD and BDD - using C++11, C++14, C++17 and later (or C++03 on the Catch1.x branch)
CppTest is a portable and powerful, yet simple, unit testing framework for handling automated tests in C++. The focus lies on usability and extendability. Several output formats are supported and new ones are easily added.
Unicode Character Table.
Obscure C++ Features
This page is a collection of obscure C++ features, gathered over the years as I've explored different corners of the language. C++ is very big and I'm always learning more about it. Hopefully you'll learn something from this page even if you already know C++ pretty well. The features below are roughly ordered from least to most obscure.
Design patterns are solutions to software design problems you find again and again in real-world application development. Patterns are about reusable designs and interactions of objects.
ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. Computers can only understand numbers, so an ASCII code is the numerical representation of a character such as 'a' or '@' or an action of some sort. ASCII was developed a long time ago and now the non-printing characters are rarely used for their original purpose. Below is the ASCII character table and this includes descriptions of the first 32 non-printing characters. ASCII was actually designed for use with teletypes and so the descriptions are somewhat obscure. If someone says they want your CV however in ASCII format, all this means is they want 'plain' text with no formatting such as tabs, bold or underscoring - the raw format that any computer can understand. This is usually so they can easily import the file into their own applications without issues. Notepad.exe creates ASCII text, or in MS Word you can save a file as 'text only'.
Learn to use .NET to create applications on any platform using C#, Visual Basic, and F#. Browse API reference, sample code, tutorials, and more.
.NET Framework Development Guide
This section explains how to create, configure, debug, secure, and deploy your .NET Framework apps. The section also provides information about technology areas such as dynamic programming, interoperability, extensibility, memory management, and threading.